Gait Analysis Methods for Rodent Models of Arthritic Disorders: Reviews and Recommendations

MiceAnkleCFACatWalkInterlimb coordination, stance
phase, swing phase, duty factor,
stride length, and swing speedLess regular gait, changes in stance phase
duration, swing phase duration, speed, and
duty factor. Reduced ratio of right to left
hindlimbs for paw pressure, print area, stance
phase duration, duty factor, and swing speed.Indomethacin11RatsKneeMIA or
ACLTCatWalkSwing time, swing speed, and
duty factor. Velocity as time to
cross arena/length of arenaNo changes in velocity for any group.
MIA: Longer swing phase, slower swing
speed, and smaller duty factor in ipsilateral
limb. ACLT: No difference in swing phase
and swing speed between limbs. Changes in
both limbs for swing phase and greater swing
speed compared to controls.Celecoxib21MiceAnkleLPSCatWalkPaw pressure intensity, print
areaRatio of right/left hind paw pressures and the
ratio of right/left hind paw areas were
lowered after 2 days.Indomethacin,
Minocycline26RatsKneeType II
CollagenaseCatWalkPaw print intensityReduced paw intensity in collagenase
injected rats.Morphine,
Diclofenac27RatsKneeMIACatWalkPaw print intensity and area,
velocity, stride length, stance
time, stride time, swing timeDecreased paw print intensity. No change in
other parameters.None67RatKneeACLTCatWalkVelocity, stance duration, swing
duration. Calculated a “limb
idleness index” from paw print
intensity ratios.Increased LII, target print ratio, and swing
duration ratio. Unchanged anchor point ratio.
Comparing sham and naïve, there was higher
LII, but no difference in ratios.Buprenorphine68RatsSystemic
InjectionsCatWalkPrint area, duration of stance
phase, regularity indexDecrease in print area, decreased stance
phase in 2–3 paws, decreased regularity
index. Gait was partially restored at 4 weeks.None12RatsKneeMIACatWalkMax contact area, swing speed.
Subtracted values from
contralateral sideSignificant right-left imbalances for max
contact areas and swing speed.Morphine69MiceKneeDMMCatWalkMean print intensityNo evidence of gait impairmentMorphine,
Acetaminophen70MiceAnkleLPSCatWalkPaw pressure intensity, paw
print area, and regularity indexReduced paw pressure, but returned to
normal after 4 days. Reduced print areas of
all paws –all recovered except the injected
limb. Paw pressure ratios and print area
ratios decreased, and was most profound at 2
days.Indomethacin71RatsPawCFACatWalkIpsilateral load percentage
(based on area and pressure
intensity)Load reduction on ipsilateral pawNone72RatsSystemic
like arenaVelocity, stride length, swing
time, single stance time, double
stance timeDecrease in velocity and stride length,
increase in single and double stance time and
swing time.Muscimol,
Bicuculline73RatsKnee or
AnkleCFA or
like arenaPaw print intensity, guarding
index, regularity indexCFA: Increased guarding index, reduced
weight bearing and regularity index.
Carrageenan: Increased guarding index,
reduced weight bearing and regularity indexNaproxen,
like arenaVelocity, hind paw stride length,
stride time, swing time, single
stance time, dual stance time,
and duration of ground contactReduced velocity, stride length, single stance
time, swing time, and ground contact.
Increased dual stance time.Buprenorphine29RatsKneeCarrageenanDigiGaitSwing time, stance/swing ratio,
braking time, stance time, %
stance/stride, stride length,
stride time, % swing/stride, %
propulsion/stride, paw area,
stance widthInjected limb: Decreased stance/swing ratio,
stance, %stance/stride, stride length, paw
area, stride. Increased %swing/stride, %
propulsion/stride. Contralateral hindlimb:
Increased stance/swing ratio, % stance/stride.
Decreased % swing/stride, %
propulsion/stride. Ipsilateral forelimb:
Decreased stance/swing ratio and stride.
Contralateral forelimb: decreased stride
length and strideNone38MiceKneeMechanical
LoadingDigiGaitStance phase, swing phase,
stride time, stride length, paw
areaChanges only seen in the contralateral limb.
Increased stance and stride times, stride
length, and paw areaNone74MiceSystemic
miceDigiGaitStance phase, swing phase,
stride time, stride length, paw
area, brake and propel times,
paw angle, symmetry indexPaw area is main parameter associated with
(rheumatic)CIADigiGaitPaw area, paw angle, stride
length, stride frequency, stride
time, stance time, swing time,
braking time, propulsion timeIncreased stride frequency and paw area.
Decreased stride length and stride time, paw
angle, stance time, swing time, braking time,
and propulsion time.None30MiceKneeCarrageenanDigiGaitStride time, stance time, swing
time, stride length, stride
frequencyIncreased swing time. No change in stance
time, stride time, stride length, and stride
frequency.Buprenorphine32MiceKneeTFGβ1 and
RunningTreadScanStance time, Swing time,
Braking time, propulsion timeNo change in stride time, stride length, or
stride frequency. Increased stance time,
propulsion time, and swing time.Hyaluronan40RatsSystemic
tuberculosisTreadScanStance time, swing time stride
length, velocityReduced velocity, stride length, increased
stance time and swing timeIndomethacin,
Chloroquine, D-
Methotrexate31MiceKneeCarrageenanTreadScanStride time, stance time, swing
time, stride length, stride
frequencyNo change in swing time. Increased stance
time, stride time, and stride length. Reduced
stride frequency.Buprenorphine32RatsKnee and
RunningInk PrintsStride length and step anglesNo difference in stride length, decreased paw
anglesNone75RatsKneeCFAInk PrintsLimb rotation, stride length,
stance widthIncreased foot rotation and stance width,
reduced stride lengthNBQX76RatsKneeCIAInk PrintsStep lengths, angles, and
walking speedAsymmetric gait, decreased step lengths, and
increased paw angles in arthritic ratsEnbrel (anti-
TNF)15MiceKneeACLT and
TransectionInk PrintsStride length, base of support,
paw print areaNo change in stride or base of support,
smaller foot print after transectionNone37MiceSystemic
miceInk PrintsStride length, base of supportReduced stride length, no change in base of
Gait ArenaStride length, step width, duty
factor, gait symmetryAsymmetric gait after MMT, imbalanced,
different stance time, no change in stride
length, step width, and stride frequencyNone9MiceSystemic
(genetic)Type IX
Gait ArenaVelocity, duty factor, stride
length, step width, stride
frequency, and symmetryReduced velocity, increased duty factor,
shorter stride lengths, and wider step widthsNone33RatsKneeIL-1β
Gait ArenaVelocity, stride length/stride
frequency, step width, toe-out
angle, duty factor, and gait
symmetryReduced time spent on affected limb and gait
symmetry greater than 0.5. Velocity
increased, stride lengths increased, and toe-
out angles trended up with time.IL1Ra10RatsKneeMMTCustom
Gait ArenaVelocity, stance time, swing
time, stride time, stride length,
and step width. Calculated
spatial symmetry, temporal
symmetry, duty factor, stance
time imbalance, percentage
single-limb support.Asymmetric gait at 2 and 6 weeks post-
surgery. Narrow step widths at 2, 4, and 6
weeks. Reduced stride length residuals and 4
and 6 weeks. Temporal asymmetry at 1 and
4 weeks. Stance time imbalance at 1 and 6
WheelSwing time, swing time ratioDecreased swing time ratio and swing timeIndomethacin34MiceSystemic
(genetic)Type IX
Gait ArenaContact time, stride time, duty
factor, stride frequency,
instantaneous speedSlower wheel running speed, no difference in
duty factor, stride frequency. Overground:
No difference in duty factor, stride frequency.
Wheel had faster running speeds than over
ground, lower duty factor. No difference in
stride frequency.None78

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